Items tagged “reference needed”

46 results found

Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques muscles (superior oblique and inferior oblique) There is some deba...


The increased globe size or macrophthalmia may have many differentials: buphthalmos (congenital glaucoma) axial myopia macrophthalmus in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Focal enlargement: staphyloma coloboma See also mi...

Wormian bone

Wormian bones (a.k.a. intrasutural bones) is the name given to the additional small bones sometimes found between the cranial sutures of the bones of the skull vault, most commonly in relation to the lambdoid suture. Some reserve the term Wormian bones to just the intrasutural bones proximate to...

Tc-99m DTPA

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in renal imaging and primarily used to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life: 2.5 hours normal di...

Normal mesenteric lymph nodes

In the pre-multidetector CT era, mesenteric lymph nodes were only really appreciated when enlarged. Following the advent of routine volume acquisition CT (and especially coronal reformats) they are commonly seen in normal individuals, which has raised the obvious question of what counts as mesen...

MRI physics

The basic process The way MR images are generated is complicated and is much harder to understand than plain radiography, CT and ultrasound. It has strong underpinnings in physics which must be understood before any real sense of 'how it works' is gained.  What follows is a very abbreviated, '...

Hybrid imaging

Hybrid imaging refers to the fusion of two (or more) imaging modalities to form a new technique. By combining the innate advantages of the fused imaging technologies synergistically, usually a new and more powerful modality comes into being. Some hybrid imaging modalities are synergistic solely...

Space charge

Space charge refers to the collection of electrons which are emitted from the metal surface, after the application of tube current, at a short distance away from the metal surface. These electrons collect and form a cloud of negative charge around the metal surface. This space charge repels and...


Microbubbles are intravenous contrast agents used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Microbubble contrast agent is different to the agitated saline contrast agent often used in echocardiographic studies. Microbubbles consist of a gas surrounded by a lipid, lipopolymer, or polymer shell. They rang...

Contrast enhancement

Contrast enhancement is a ubiquitous term in radiology and can be used in three ways.  Firstly, it may refer to any method of exaggerating the visible difference between adjacent structures on imaging by administering contrast media/agents. This includes differentiating between normal structure...


Cholecystectomies are one of the most common surgical procedures performed. Evidence of a cholecystectomy is often seen on imaging procedures with surgical clips in the gallbladder fossa and radiologists should be aware of possible complications.  Indications cholelithiasis cholecystitis gal...

Aberrant right subclavian and left vertebral arteries

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Hani Salam
Published 11 Mar 2017
98% complete

History of imaging of the pituitary region

The history of imaging of the pituitary region encompasses many different modalities and has greatly evolved over the years, including plain radiographs, pneumoencephalography, angiography, CT and MRI. The pituitary gland is situated in the central skull base, closely related to the sphenoid sin...

Tracheobronchial stent

A tracheobronchial stent is a device used in the treatment of symptomatic airway compression. This device is inserted under bronchoscopic guidance in patients with external compression from mediastinal based malignancy, for example lung or esophageal cancers.  It may also be used in the treatme...


The Ionizing Radiation (Protection of Persons Undergoing Medical Examination or Treatment) Regulations 1988 were popularly known as the POPUMET regulations. They were the former legal regulations in the UK covering the protection of patients undergoing the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosti...

Fornix (eye)

The fornix conjunctiva is loose soft tissue lying at the junction between the palpebral conjunctiva (covering the inner surface of the eyelid) and the bulbar conjunctiva (covering the globe). Each eye has two fornices, the superior and inferior fornices. The fornix permits freedom of movement of...


An anlage in biology refers to the primordial precursor of a tissue or organ, which is still recognisable as a collection of cells that will form that specific tissue. The term is commonly used in medicine to refer to organs, such as the pancreas, when one is describing anatomical variants and ...

Maxwell (CGS unit)

The maxwell (symbol: Mx) is the CGS unit of magnetic flux and was superseded by the weber, the unit in the SI system.  Terminology As per all other eponymous measurement units when the unit is written out in full it is not capitalized, but when shortened to its symbol it is capitalized. Histo...

Basal lamella

The basal lamella, also known as basal lamella of the middle turbinate, is an osseous lamella that separates the anterior from the posterior ethmoid sinuses 1. Terminology Internal anterior to posterior partitions of the ethmoid sinuses are called basal lamellae. According to a concept propose...

Spinal pia mater

The spinal pia mater (or pia mater spinalis) is the innermost layer of the spinal meninges. In congruence to the cranial pia being closely related to the surface of the brain, the spinal pia is closely related to the surface of the spinal cord.  Gross anatomy The spinal pia mater is continuou...

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