Items tagged “endocrine”
294 results found
Adrenal adenomas (a.k.a. adenomata) are the most common adrenal lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adrenal metastas...
Carney complex (not to be confused with the Carney triad) is a rare multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome characterized by 1-4: cardiac myxoma often multiple seen in two-thirds of patients with Carney complex skin pigmentation (blue nevi): especially of the face, trunk, lips, and sclera M...
Carney triad is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumors: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas were included, but subsequent work includes non-functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas 1 gastric gastr...
Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone in the body. It can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features, predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone lead to increased osteoclas...
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumors (IPMNs or IMPTs) are epithelial pancreatic cystic tumors of mucin-producing cells that arise from the pancreatic ducts. They are most commonly seen in elderly patients. On imaging, particularly MRCP, they are characterized by single or multipl...
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an uncommon non-neoplastic inflammatory condition that affects the pituitary gland. It is closely related to other inflammatory conditions in the region, namely orbital pseudotumor and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Epidemiology Lymphocytic hypophysitis is seen most frequent...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, islet cells of the pancreas and parathyroid glands. There are other multiple...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN2) is also known as mucosal neuroma syndrome or multiple endocrine adenomatosis. It is a collection of syndromes characterized by the presence of multiple endocrine tumors. They are autosomal dominant in inheritance, and share medullary thyroid carcinom...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIa, also known as Sipple syndrome, accounts for most cases of MEN2 and is characterized by: pheochromocytomas: in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients, aggressive, and may secrete calciton...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb, also known as MEN type 3 (MEN3) 3 or mucosal neuroma syndrome 2, accounts for only 5% cases of MEN2 and is characterized by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patient...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are a collection of syndromes characterized by the presence of, as the name would suggest, multiple endocrine tumors. They are autosomal dominant in inheritance. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) MEN2 (multiple endocrine adenomatosis) MEN2a (Sipple syndrome) ...
The ductal embryology of the pancreas is moderately complicated, leading to a number of anatomical variants of the pancreatic ducts, many of which are clinically significant. Gross anatomy The normal arrangement is for the entire pancreas to be drained via a single duct, to the ampulla of Vate...
Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical syndrome caused by either hemorrhagic or non-hemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland 2. Although variable, it typically comprises of headache, visual deficits, ophthalmoplegia, and altered mental status 7. An existing pituitary macroadenoma is usually ...
The pituitary stalk, also known as the infundibulum or infundibular stalk, is largely outside the blood brain barrier like the rest of the pituitary and therefore normally enhances following the administration of gadolinium. It gradually tapers inferiorly, and superiorly is spread by the infundi...
Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)
Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in a number of entities. Differential diagnosis tumors germinoma craniopharyngioma hypothalamic glioma pituitary lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumor of the pituitary (pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of the...
Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes
Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are a rare set of diseases characterized by the presence of ≥2 autoimmune endocrine disease. Pathology Three types of PAS have been described. PAS type I a.k.a. APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy) or MEDAC (mu...
The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ in the neck which is completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia) and lies in the visceral space. Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies anterior to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages of the lar...
Differentiated thyroid cancer (staging)
Differentiated thyroid cancer staging refers to TNM staging of papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are staged separately. The following article reflects the 8th edition manual published by the American Joint Committ...
Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)
Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic/colloid nodule/nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anaplastic: 1-2% thyroid ly...
Published 07 May 2008