Items tagged “echo”

26 results found

Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a hemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and may...

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9.  Pathology It is p...


Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of the pericardium. It is normally found in association with cardiac, thoracic or wider systemic pathology and it is unusual to manifest on its own. Clinical presentation Classically, patients present with abrupt, pleuritic, positional left precordial ch...

Carcinoid heart disease

Carcinoid heart disease, also known as Hedinger syndrome, is a known complication of carcinoid tumors, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presen...

Four chamber cardiac view (fetal)

The four chamber cardiac view is an important and routinely performed view in both fetal echocardiography as well as on a standard second trimester anatomy scan. Detectable pathology The four chamber view can only detect some of the congenital cardiac anomalies (~64% according to one study 2) ...

Arterial Doppler assessment in LVAD patients

In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline. the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slo...

Speckle tracking echocardiography

Speckle tracking echocardiography describes the semi-automated analysis of grey scale (B-mode) echocardiographic studies in which the spatial translocation of derived functional units (speckles) allows quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Speckle tracking constitutes a subset of deform...

Non-compaction of the left ventricle

Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy or left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a phenotype of hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep interventricular recesses. It has been hypothesized to result from arrest of normal myocardial compaction dur...

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not defined to a single coronary arterial territory. It has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women, often following exposure to sudden, unexpected emotional or physical st...

Hemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in hemochromatosis typically occurs with primary hemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hemochromatosis.  Epidemiol...

Prosthetic heart valve

Prosthetic heart valves are common. The four valves of the heart may all be surgically replaced. However, the aortic and mitral valves are the most commonly replaced. Replacements may be tissue or metallic valves, only the latter being visualized on imaging investigations. Sometimes the annulus...

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (echocardiography)

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Yune Kwong
Published 10 Jul 2014
75% complete

Crista terminalis

The crista terminalis is a smooth muscular ridge in the superior aspect of the right atrium, formed following resorption of the right valve of the sinus venosus. It represents the junction between the sinus venarum, the "smooth" portion of the right atrium derived from the embryologic sinus veno...

Cardiomyopathy in hemochromatosis

Cardiomyopathy in hemochromatosis refers to an iron overload cardiomyopathy which can occur in those with the condition. In primary hemochromatosis leading to iron overload, the cardiomyopathy has classically been categorized as an infiltrative cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy. While in thos...

Cardiovascular shunts

Cardiovascular (cardiac) shunts are abnormal connections between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Most commonly they are the result of congenital heart disease. Pathology Blood can either be shunted from the systemic circulation to pulmonary circulation (i.e. 'left-to-right shunt') or ...

Eosinophilic endocarditis

Eosinophilic endocarditis, also known as Loeffler endocarditis, is one of the cardiac manifestations of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. It also considered a form of cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology There is limited information on the incidence of eosinophilic endocarditis. the majority of ...

Left atrial appendage

The left atrial appendage (LAA) (also known as left auricle) is a pouch-like projection from the main body of the left atrium, which lies in the atrioventricular sulcus in close proximity to the left circumflex artery, the left phrenic nerve, and the left pulmonary veins. Gross anatomy Morphol...

Transesophageal echocardiography

A standard transesophageal echocardiography (TOE, or TEE in US English) is a type of ultrasound using an endoscopic transducer, which is advanced into the esophagus, offering generally superior visualization of the great vessels and posterior cardiac structures than the standard transthoracic ap...

Pulmonary venous doppler waveform (illustration)

 Diagnosis not applicable
Dr David Carroll
Published 03 Mar 2019
19% complete

Approach to shock (echocardiography)

The presence of shock implies inadequate tissue perfusion, the end-point of which is multisystem organ failure and death. Echocardiography at the point-of-care is fast, non-invasive, and often pivotal in the diagnosis, resuscitation, and management of the patient with an undifferentiated shock s...

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