Items tagged “doppler ultrasound”
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Renal arteriovenous fistula
Renal arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are anomalous direct communications between arteries and veins in the kidney, which may be confused with a renal arteriovenous malformation (rAVM). Epidemiology The incidence of renal AVF is variable, estimated at 0.3-19% in native kidneys and 6-8% in re...