Items tagged “core condition”
379 results found
Aortic intramural hematoma
Aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to a contained hemorrhage into the aortic wall usually from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It forms part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum along with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and classical...
Cecal volvulus describes torsion of the cecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and fecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Cecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat younger ...
Brain herniation, also referred to as acquired intracranial herniation, refers to shift of brain tissue from its normal location, into an adjacent space as a result of mass effect. It is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis. Pathology There are a number of different pat...
Croup, also known as acute laryngotracheobronchitis, is due to viral infection of the upper airway by parainfluenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Although imaging findings are not required for the diagnosis, classic findings of narrowing of the subglottic airway and dilatation of ...
Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
Ischemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischemic bowel is typically a disease...
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), also known as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, is a complication of gadolinium-based contrast agents used in MRI. It is characterized by "firm, erythematous, and indurated plaques of the skin associated with subcutaneous edema" 1. Eventually, flexure contra...
Scaphoid fractures (i.e. fractures through the scaphoid bone) are common, in some instances can be difficult to diagnose, and can result in significant functional impairment. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures account for 70-80% of all carpal bone fractures 1. Although they occur essentially at a...
AAST spleen injury scale
The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale, most recently revised in 2018, is currently the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criter...
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of extra-axial intracranial hemorrhage and denotes the presence of blood within the subarachnoid space. Epidemiology Patients tend to be older middle age, typically less than 60 years old 2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for 3% of stroke and 5% of str...
Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) (also commonly called a subdural hematoma) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans ...
Thoracic aortic injury
Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life-ending event. Clinical presentation Approximately 80% of patients with thoracic aortic injury die at the scene of the trauma. In those who make it to hospital, clinical...
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PMSAH) is a distinct pattern of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which is centered on the basal cisterns around the midbrain. Epidemiology Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage is rare with an incidence of 0.5 in 100 000 in adults 4. PMSAH represent...
Cerebral venous thrombosis
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and non-specific. Furthermore...
Burst lumbar fracture
Published 24 Sep 2008
Renal vascular pedicle injury
Renal vascular pedicle injury is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognized and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney. Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognized as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal he...
An intracerebral hemorrhage, or intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage, is a subset of an intracranial hemorrhage and encompasses a number of entities that have in common the acute accumulation of blood within the parenchyma of the brain. The etiology, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis vary wi...
A perforated appendix is one of the complications of acute appendicitis. When appendicitis is left untreated, necrosis (gangrene) of the appendiceal wall can occur and progress to a focal rupture. Epidemiology Perforation of the appendix is more common with advanced age, due to an increased fr...
Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
Published 03 Jul 2009