Items tagged “cardiology”
186 results found
Cardiac blood pool scan
A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy. Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumors and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumors. Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults (~50%) but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas...
Congenital cardiovascular anomalies
Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn. Epidemiology In a large study in the U...
Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex, and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. Although generally when it is not specified it is assumed to refer to the systemic type. systemic hypertension...
Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)
The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement inferred from the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle (LV). Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC e...
Left-sided superior vena cava
A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3,4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
Mitral annular calcification
Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to the deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxomatous degeneration of the...
Pericardial calcification is usually seen in individual patients with a history of pericarditis and may be associated with constrictive pericarditis. Pathology Although historically infective pericarditis was the most common cause, a wide variety of insults can lead to calcification of the pe...
Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection. Epidemiology Risk factors include: children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1 poverty, overcrowding Clinical presentation...
Systemic hypertension is defined medically as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. Recently the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have changed guidelines to indicate that pressures above 130/80 mmHg will be considered hypertension, however the Europe...
Straight back syndrome
Straight back syndrome refers to decreased thoracic kyphosis ("flattening") and decreased anteroposterior thoracic diameter, such that there is compression of cardiovascular or bronchial structures. It should not be confused with flat back syndrome, which refers to decreased lumbar lordosis, o...
Mitral annular calcification
Published 07 May 2008
Flat floor of fourth ventricle sign
The flat floor of fourth ventricle sign is useful in detecting a pontine mass and is a sign of mass effect. The normal floor of the fourth ventricle (remember that the floor is anterior) normally slopes upwards towards the midline, with the facial colliculi visible on either side. It is a non-...
Tuberous sclerosis and cardiac rhabdomyomas
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 24 May 2009
Atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects (VSDs) and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterized by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria...
Published 19 Jun 2009
Multiple emboli from aortic valve
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 02 Sep 2009
Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI
ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
A pulmonary pseudotumor is no more than 'something' which mimics a tumor. Most frequently it is caused by a loculated pleural effusion (pleural pseudotumor) trapped in the pleural fissures. Other entities which have been described with the term pseudotumors include: round atelectasis pulmonar...
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart condition with many cases presenting after the newborn period. It has been classically characterized by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta...