Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

176 results found
Article

Abdominal paracentesis

An abdominal paracentesis (plural: paracenteses), more commonly referred to as an ascitic tap, is a procedure that can be performed to collect peritoneal fluid for analysis or as a therapeutic intervention. Indications diagnostic: especially for newly-diagnosed ascites determine etiology of a...
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Adrenal vein sampling

Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is a procedure where blood is collected from the adrenal veins via catheter to confirm autonomous hormone production, if it is unilateral or bilateral, and to guide further treatment. Indication Adrenal vein sampling is commonly performed in primary aldosteronism, b...
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Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis, also known as amniotic fluid testing or AFT, is a diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedure primarily used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. A small amount of amniotic fluid (15-20 ml), which contains fetal tissue, is extracted from the am...
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Antegrade ureteric stent

Antegrade ureteric stents are performed under fluoroscopic guidance, typically by an interventional radiologist or urologist. It is performed via percutaneous access from the kidney. It is usually performed using the access from a prior percutaneous nephrostomy, a so-called two-step procedure, a...
Article

Antonio Egas Moniz

Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) 1 was a pioneering Portuguese neurologist that is notable in radiology history for his development of cerebral angiography in 1927. He is also known as the developer of prefrontal leucotomy (now better known as a lobotomy) ​for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1...
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Arteriovenous access

Arteriovenous access is required for haemodialysis in renal failure patients. The upper limb is generally preferred as a site, however, lower limb access can also be obtained. Ultrasound is the preferred modality for evaluation of the vessels prior to creating an access. Types arteriovenous fi...
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Arthrogram

An arthrogram (or arthrography) is a commonly performed procedure in musculoskeletal radiology, which can refer to both an injection into a joint, and cross-sectional imaging after a joint is injected. Indications Arthrograms are performed for a variety of indications including:  labral tear ...
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Arthrogram (anesthetic)

An arthrogram injection is a procedure in which a solution is administered into a joint under imaging guidance.  These procedures are more accurately named direct arthrogram injections, although they are routinely known as arthrograms.  Fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and CT can be used for image guida...
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Arthrogram (CT)

A CT arthrogram is a CT performed after a joint is injected with a solution containing iodinated contrast.  They are not commonly abbreviated to CTA, which will be confused with CT angiography. An arthrogram also refers to the procedure of injecting a joint. Indications shoulder - instability/...
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Arthrogram (MRI)

An MR arthrogram is an MRI performed after a joint is injected with a solution containing gadolinium. Sometimes abbreviated to MRA, which can be confused with MR angiography. MRI can also be performed after an injection is not directly administered into the joint, via an indirect arthrogram. An ...
Article

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration

Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is a technique used by interventional radiologists in the treatment of gastric varices, particularly those with prominent infra-diaphragmatic portosystemic venous shunts (e.g. gastro-renal and gastro-caval shunts). The technique is mor...
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Basilar artery aneurysm

Basilar artery aneurysms are less common than anterior circulation aneurysms, and rupture less frequently, but their critical location necessitates careful evaluation. Radiographic features CT may present as a lobulated hyperattenuating structure anterior to the mid brain rupture of a basil...
Article

Billowing phenomenon

Billowing phenomenon refers to the presence of contrast medium on contrast-enhanced CT outside of graft metal struts, due to the specific construction characteristic typical of the AFX® stent-graft (Endologix, Inc., USA), designed to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms. It has a unique internal sca...
Article

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy has been used to treat: prostate cancer breast cancer (ofte...
Article

Breast core biopsy

The percutaneous breast biopsy is one of the current choices for focal histopathological assessment of breast lesions. In contrast to fine needle aspiration, during a core needle biopsy, a hollow needle is used to withdraw small cores of tissue from the area of interest in the breast.  This pro...
Article

Breast ductography

Breast ductography (a.k.a. galactography) is an imaging technique which is used to evaluate lesions causing nipple discharge. It helps in precisely locating the mass within breast tissue and gives useful information for surgical approach and planning. Technique A blunt-tipped sialogram needle ...
Article

Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening complications inc...
Article

Call-Fleming syndrome

Call-Fleming syndrome, also called Call syndrome, essentially synonymous with the more current term reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), although it is felt to be a subset of the former by some, representing the idiopathic RCVS.  Call-Flemming syndrome is therefore characterize...
Article

Carbon dioxide angiography

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an excellent negative contrast agent which has been used for a variety of vascular interventions since the introduction of digital subtraction angiography. Due to its high solubility rate and rapid diffusibility via the lungs CO2 is safe for intravascular usage. Physical...
Article

Carotid arterial stenting

Carotid arterial stenting (CAS) is a minimally invasive endovascular interventional procedure that can potentially offer the same advantage as surgery (carotid endarterectomy). Indications Indications for carotid stenting are evolving with endarterectomy trials that evaluate the carotid stenos...
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Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
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Caudal epidural injection

Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
Article

Cell block cytology

Cell block cytology is a technique used in cytopathology (in addition to smears) for evaluation of tissue from fine needle aspirations (FNA) or fluid aspirations. Multiple different protocols exist for processing a cell block, but the fundamental principles are the same: fragmentary bits of ti...
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PIC...
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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischemic stroke vascular...
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Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection

Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (ILESIs) are used to inject steroids in the epidural space and around the exiting nerve roots and are one of the two main spinal epidural injections; the other cervical transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically performed in pat...
Article

Charles T Dotter

Charles T Dotter (1920-1985) is often considered the father of interventional radiology who in 1964 performed the very first peripheral angioplasty, and made many other major contributions in this field. Early life Charles Theodore Dotter was born in Boston on 14 June 1920. He graduated with a...
Article

Chiba needle

The Chiba needle is one of the most commonly used biopsy/percutaneous access needles. It is a two-part hollow needle with a beveled tip angled at 30 degrees. The inner stylet (which is also beveled) is removable. The beveling of the Chiba needle results in superior steering compared to conventio...
Article

Chorionic villus sampling

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is an antenatal procedure for prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus. It entails getting a sample of the chorionic villus (placental tissue) and testing it. A transabdominal or transcervical approach is selected depending on the posit...
Article

Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...
Article

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) is a standardized findings communication method and clinical decision aid relevant to coronary CT angiography. The system was created by a collaboration of the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), American Colle...
Article

CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea or CSF otorrhea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base of skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated non-ionic low-osmolar co...
Article

CT guided adrenal biopsy

CT guided adrenal biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal nodules or tumors. This procedure has declined in recent years due to improvements in, and validation of, non-invasive CT and MR techniques that can now diagnose benign adrenal lesions with a high degree of ...
Article

CT guided percutaneous drainage

CT guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image-guided drainage, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections, potentially anywhere in the body. Although less commonly used than ultrasound guidance, it is particularly valuable in gaining access to deeper or more posterior parts of t...
Article

CT guided thoracic biopsy

CT guided thoracic biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of suspicious lung, pleural or mediastinal lesions. It can be performed as an outpatient procedure where patient monitoring and complications support are available.  A small percentage of lung and pleural biopsies may be performed ...
Article

Denver shunt

A Denver shunt, or peritoneovenous shunt, is a device used to shunt ascites to the superior vena cava in patients with refractory ascites. The proximal end is located in the peritoneal cavity and the distal end in the superior vena cava, with a subcutaneous course in the anterior chest wall. It...
Article

DM interventional radiology

DM interventional radiology superspecialty course is a 3-year postgraduate subspecialty training in interventional radiology with the pre-requisites being a primary medical degree and MD radiodiagnosis or DNB radiodiagnosis. Successful completion of the course requires submission of a thesis at ...
Article

Double lumen cannula for VV ECMO

The double lumen cannula enables veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) to patients with severe respiratory failure. It is often used as a bridge to lung transplant.  The cannulation is usually performed via the right jugular vein. This position allows the patients to stay aw...
Article

Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterized by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
Article

Endosaccular flow disruption devices

Endosaccular flow disruption devices, also simply known as flow disruptors, are used for the treatment of saccular, wide-neck, and usually bifurcation intracranial aneurysms. Their primary function is to stop blood from flowing into the aneurysm, allowing time for the aneurysm to heal. They are ...
Article

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
Article

Endotension

Endotension, also referred to as a type V endoleak, is not a true leak but is defined as continued expansion of the aneurysm sac greater than 5 mm, without radiographic evidence of a leak site. Pathology It is a poorly understood phenomenon but thought to be formation of a transudate due to ul...
Article

Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was first pioneered in the early 1990s. Since then technology of the devices has rapidly progressed and EVAR is now widely used as treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The advantages of endovascular repair over open repair are that they...
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Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS)

Endovascular aneurysm sealing system (EVAS) was developed with the intention to expand beyond the anatomic limitations of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) devices, as well as to decrease the rates of re-intervention secondary to graft migration and type II endoleaks. EVAS was designed by End...
Article

Endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation

Endovascular arteriovenous fistula creation is a recently developed minimally invasive alternative for the creation of arteriovenous fistulae for haemodialysis access. Technique Catheter-based technology and image guidance in the form of ultrasound and fluoroscopy is utilized create a side-to-...
Article

Epidural blood patch

Epidural blood patch is a treatment option for patients with craniospinal hypotension or post lumbar puncture headaches. The procedure can be done blind or under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, and is performed predominantly by radiologists and anesthesiologists.  Indications craniospinal hypoten...
Article

Expanded treatment in cerebral ischemia (eTICI) score

The expanded treatment in cerebral infarction (eTICI) score was further modified from the modified treatment in cerebral infarction (mTICI) and thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scale by the HERMES investigators in 20191. Using modified Rankin scale (mRs) shift at 90 days as the outcome...
Article

Facet joint injection

Facet (zygapophyseal) joint injections are one of the most frequently performed spinal interventional procedures, as both treatment for and diagnosis of radicular pain syndrome and facet syndrome. It can be performed under fluoroscopic, or CT image guidance and cervical, thoracic or most commonl...
Article

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic, as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Etiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following femoral arterial puncture for endovascular intervention ...
Article

Fine needle aspiration (FNA)

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a type of minimally-invasive tissue sampling. It often uses ultrasound as a targeting instrument, although CT, and even MRI or fluoroscopy could potentially be used, depending on the situation. Imaging guidance is particularly useful when sampling deep or diffuse ...
Article

Flow-diverter stent

Flow-diverter stents are relatively new and important devices in the management of intracranial aneurysms, especially ones that are large, broad-necked or fusiform.  Complications In a multi-center study in Italy, Briganti et al. reported an overall morbidity rate of 3.7% and a mortality rate ...
Article

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal tube insertion

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal (NJT) or nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a valuable procedure offered by radiologists in patient care. The majority of nasogastric tubes are inserted on the ward level and nasojejunal tubes may be placed in theater at the time of surgery. In difficult cases, inserti...
Article

Fluoroscopy guided lumbar puncture

Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture (LP) is a minimally invasive, image-guided diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves the removal of a small volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from, or an injection of medication or other substance (e.g. radiotracer, chemotherapy agents) into the lumb...
Article

Fractional flow reserve

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a technique to evaluate the hemodynamic relevance of coronary artery stenoses 1,2. It is defined as "the ratio of maximal flow achievable in the stenotic coronary artery to the maximal flow achievable in the same coronary artery if it was normal" 1. Fractional f...
Article

French gauge

The French gauge (Fr) (also known as the French scale or system) is used to size catheters, and other instruments, in interventional radiology and surgery. In some parts of the world, the Charrière (Ch) is used as the name of the unit, in honor of its inventor.  French sizing The French system...
Article

Gene expression classifier

A gene expression classifier (GEC) test is a developing technology in the analysis of indeterminate thyroid nodules, using cells from a fine needle aspiration. The most common commercially available GEC in the United States is known as AFIRMA. The test is designed to use molecular markers to he...
Article

Glenohumeral arthrography

Glenohumeral (shoulder) arthrography is an imaging technique used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint to evaluate the joint components. A glenohumeral joint injection is usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance although ultrasound and CT can be also be used. An alternative to direct arthrogr...
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Glenohumeral joint injection (technique)

Glenohumeral joint injections (often referred to as shoulder injections ) are performed as part of a number of therapeutic and imaging procedures using a variety of approaches and modalities. The underlying principles shared by all techniques are to avoid damage to the glenoid labrum, long head ...
Article

Glenohumeral joint hydrodilatation

Glenohumeral joint (shoulder) hydrodilatation or tension arthrography is an established treatment for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (frozen shoulder) and can be performed using a variety of modalities.  Indications adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder Contraindications anticoagulation/c...
Article

Greater trochanteric bursa injection (technique)

Greater femoral trochanteric bursa injections under ultrasound-guidance ensures the injectate is accurately given into the bursa. The greater trochanteric bursa is the largest of the bursae surrounding the proximal femur, with the others including the subgluteus minimus and subgluteus medius bur...
Article

Groshong catheter

Groshong® catheters are a type of central venous catheter, which are placed under direct fluoroscopic visualization in an angiography suite. They can be tunnelled or non-tunnelled and are similar to a Hickman catheter, with the main difference being that Groshong catheters have a three-way valve...
Article

Heimlich valve

The Heimlich valve, also known as the flutter valve, is a unidirectional valve to ensure that gas/fluid drained from the pleural space cannot flow back in.  The Heimlich valve is cheap, easy to use, and does not require clamping unlike 'traditional' thoracostomy drainage tubes. Suction can stil...
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Hepatic chemosaturation

Hepatic chemosaturation is a percutaneous technique used to locally treat unresectable hepatic metastases in patients without systemic disease. Technique The key to this technique is isolating the blood supply to the liver. This is achieved by: closure of the gastro-duodenal artery by coiling...
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Hepatic venous pressure gradient

Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement is a safe and minimally invasive method to indirectly measure portal vein pressure in chronic liver disease patients suspected of developing portal vein hypertension.  Indications diagnosis of liver fibrosis and risk stratification identification o...
Article

Hickman catheter

Hickman catheters (or Hickman lines) are a type of tunnelled central venous access line. Indications chemotherapy administration 2 parenteral nutrition 2 long-term parenteral antibiotic administration 2 Complications Insertion arrhythmia (most common) 1 arterial injury kinking pneumoth...
Article

Hip joint injection (technique)

Hip joint injections can be performed with a variety of image guidance, including fluoroscopy and ultrasound, which are used to administer MRI arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing anesthetic arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI labral injury anesthetic pain - arthropathy i.e. os...
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Implantable port

Implantable ports, also known as chemoports, totally implantable central venous access ports or Port-A-Caths®, are a type of central venous catheter for patients requiring long-term venous access. They offer the ability to have long-term central venous access with some of the advantages over per...
Article

Important figures in the history of radiology

In the history of radiology, certain important figures stand out for their significant contributions to the development of radiology as a science, medical specialty and major advance in patient care. This list is by necessity arbitrary, although we (the editors) hope that the majority of those l...
Article

Inferior vena cava filter

Inferior vena cava filter, or just IVC filter, is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. In...
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Inferior vena cava filter retrieval

Inferior vena cava filter retrieval is an endovascular procedure whereby a previously placed inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is removed. Procedure The procedure is performed under local anesthesia with fluoroscopic guidance. Venous access is usually gained via the internal jugular vein with di...
Article

Infusothorax

Infusothorax (plural: infusothoraces), also known as a chemothorax, is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertently in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer ...
Article

Intercostal catheter

The intercostal catheter (ICC or chest tube) is a tube inserted into the pleural space to drain gas or fluid. It is mainly inserted to treat pneumothorax. Indication The indications are wide and can include 1: pneumothorax chest trauma pleural effusion hemothorax chylothorax bronchopleur...
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Interventional procedure article structure

Interventional procedure articles necessarily require a different structure to other articles. It is important for them to have a consistent structure to maintain uniformity across the site. The suggested structure and headings (and heading size) are as follows: ================================...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide hemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via a femoral artery sheath, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descendi...
Article

Irreversible electroporation

Irreversible electroporation (IRE), also known as non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE), is a non-invasive soft-tissue ablation technique used for tumor ablation in regions that require very high precision and preservation of surrounding collagenous structures (vessels and ducts) and ...
Article

Juan M Taveras

Juan M Taveras (1919-2002) was an American neuroradiologist, who is remembered chiefly for his work in establishing neuroradiology as a separate subspecialty in the United States. He was the principal mover behind the founding of the American Society of Neuroradiology and its primary publicatio...
Article

Jugular venous catheters

The internal jugular vein is a preferred site for venous access for large lumen, long-term central venous catheters for chemotherapy, hemofiltration and plasma exchange. These are commonly referred to as (internal) jugular venous (IJV) catheters. Typically, the right internal jugular is used as...
Article

Key figures in the history of radiology

In the history of radiology certain key figures stand out for their groundbreaking contributions to the establishment and development of radiology as a science, medical specialty and major advance in patient care. This list is by necessity arbitrary, although we (the editors) hope that the major...
Article

Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to terminate in the superior vena cava or right atrium is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum and below the level of the brachiocephalic vein, a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: l...
Article

Liver and biliary interventional procedures

There is a wide range of liver and biliary interventional procedures, both diagnostic and therapeutic, most commonly using CT-guidance or ultrasound-guidance.   Vascular Interventions: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) Percutaneous interven...
Article

Long head of biceps brachii tendon sheath injection (technique)

Long head of biceps brachii (LHB) tendon sheath injections under ultrasound-guidance ensures accurate delivery of injectate, which is important as these injections are often performed for diagnostic purposes.    Indications pain diagnostic injection alternative access to the glenohumeral joi...
Article

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injection

Lumbar interlaminar epidural injections are one of some possible spinal epidural injections. For an alternative approach for the same region, please refer to the article on lumbar transforaminal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients with rad...
Article

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree and pancreatic ductal system. It can provide the diagnostic range equivalent to the ERCP and so it can replace the ERCP in high risk patients to avoid sign...
Article

May-Thurner syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2. Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
Article

Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke

Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is the endovascular retrieval of clots in patients with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) that potentially go on to cause ischemic stroke. It has become the treatment of choice in selected individuals with acute intracranial occlusion by thr...
Article

Median nerve block (ultrasound-guided)

Median nerve block is a technique used for providing anesthesia to the median nerve territory, it may be performed at the level of the arm, elbow, forearm or the wrist. Indications fracture reductions surgical repair of fractures incision and drainage of cysts and abscesses post-operative a...
Article

Metallic ureteric stent

Metallic ureteric stents are a type of ureteric stent developed to offer improved symptomatic relief of obstruction when compared to polymeric (polyurethane) stents. They are often used in patients with chronic malignant ureteric obstructions who require placement of long-term ureteral stents to...
Article

MRI targeted prostate biopsy

MRI targeted prostate biopsy refers to an imaging targeted technique rather than the traditional systematic approach of a prostate biopsy after respective imaging with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate. As a consequence of the recent advances of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the pros...
Article

Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomeninge...
Article

Needle gauge system

The needle gauge system, often called just the Gauge or G, is an internationally-used scale for sizing needles. It was adopted from pre-existing gauges which were used in industry to size metal wire. In contradistinction to the French scale, the other well-known sizing system, which is a metric...
Article

Nephrostomy

Nephrostomy is a common urologic or interventional radiology procedure in which a tube/catheter is introduced into the renal collecting system (usually the renal pelvis). Nephrostomies can either be "open" nephrostomy: after a urological surgical procedure, such as a UPJ stone removal these t...
Article

Esophageal stent

Esophageal stents are a treatment option in patients with esophageal strictures. It is most commonly used for symptomatic relief in those with dysphagia secondary to malignancy. The stent is typically covered in nature and inserted endoscopically or fluoroscopically. The distal esophagus is the ...
Article

Esophageal varix

Esophageal varices describe dilated submucosal veins of the esophagus, and are an important portosystemic collateral pathway. They are considered distinct from gastric varices, which are less common. Epidemiology Esophageal varices are present in ~50% of patients with portal hypertension 1,2. ...

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