Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

188 results found
Article

Acetabular index

The acetabular index also called acetabular roof angle or Tönnis angle is a radiographic measurement of femoral head bony coverage by the acetabulum. It is useful in assessing for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) as well as pincer morphology in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Measur...
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Ahlbäck classification of knee osteoarthritis

The Ahlbäck classification is one of many ways to grade knee osteoarthritis. Classification grade 1: joint space narrowing (less than 3 mm) grade 2: joint space obliteration grade 3: minor bone attrition (0-5 mm) grade 4: moderate bone attrition (5-10 mm) grade 5: severe bone attrition (mo...
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Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries and is based purely on the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remain...
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American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures divides the femur into three separate regions: level I: proximal femur distally to the lower extent of the lesser trochanter  level II: 10 cm of femur distal to level I  level III: femur distal to level...
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Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Another classification system is the Roy-Camille classification, which aids more in the management of odontoid fractures. Classification type I rare fracture of the ...
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Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures is the most widely used scheme for describing occipital condyle fractures and divides injuries into three types based on morphology and mechanism of injury 1,2,3. Classification type I - comminuted (3-15%) impaction frac...
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Ankle fractures

Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in post multitrauma functional impairment t...
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Ankle injection (disambiguation)

Ankle injection is a general term which can refer to an intra-articular ankle injection but also other injections, particularly by patients, which include:​ Achilles hydrodilation and microtenotomy ankle joint injection MRI arthrogram CT arthrogram anesthetic arthrogram extensor tendon she...
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Anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture or tibial eminence avulsion fracture is a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5. Epidemiology It is mor...
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AO classification of clavicle fractures

The AO classification of clavicular fractures along with the Neer classification system is one of the more frequently used classification systems when assessing distal clavicular fractures. Classification The classification system, broken into three categories focuses on the displacement and p...
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AO classification of proximal humeral fractures

The AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, along with the Neer classification, is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal humeral fractures.  The AO classification divides proximal humeral fractures into three groups, A, B and C, each with subgroups, and place...
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AO/OTA classification of distal tibial fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying distal tibial fractures or tibial distal end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: extraarticular...
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AO/OTA classification of malleolar fractures

The AO/OTA classification of malleolar segment fractures is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying malleolar fractures. It takes the Danis-Weber classification into account and can be correlated to the Lauge-Hansen classification. Malleolar fractures are divided into three grou...
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AO Spine classification of sacral injuries

The AO Spine classification of sacral injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying sacral injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The AO Spine sacral classification is broken into three subsections that follow a hierarchical structure similar t...
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AO Spine classification of subaxial injuries

The AO Spine classification of subaxial injuries aims to simplify and universalise the classification of subaxial cervical spine fractures and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Usage Although its existence is widely known among the relevant subspecialty groups, its day-to-da...
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AO Spine classification of thoracolumbar injuries

The AO Spine classification of thoracolumbar injuries is one of the more commonly used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems and aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3. Unlike the othe...
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AO Spine classification of upper cervical injuries

The AO Spine classification of upper cervical injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying upper cervical injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Usage Although in routine clinical practice, at least in many institutions, injuries will be desc...
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AO Spine classification systems

The AO Spine classification systems is a group of imaging morphology-based classification system, combined with clinical factors for injury of spinal trauma. It is designed to be a simple and reproducible method of describing injury patterns. AO Spine has published four injury classification sy...
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ARCO classification of osteonecrosis

The ARCO classification (Association Research Circulation Osseous classification) is one of the staging systems used in the assessment of femoral head osteonecrosis. It was originally created in 1994 and periodically revised. The most recent revision from 20192 includes the use of radiographs an...
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Arnold-Hilgartner classification of haemophilic arthropathy

Arnold-Hilgartner classification is a plain radiograph grading system for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee 1,2: stage 0: normal joint stage I: no skeletal abnormalities, soft-tissue swelling is present stage II: osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis, no cysts, no narrowing of the ca...
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ASAS sacroiliitis classification system

First published in 2009 with a revised consensus in 2016, the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) classification system utilizes imaging features of the sacroiliac joints on MR imaging to assist in characterizing the presence of sacroiliitis. The ASAS classification is ...
Article

ASIA impairment scale for spinal injury

The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale was developed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) in 2006, was revised in 2011, and remains the most widely used neurologic classification of spinal cord injury. Classification The scale divides spinal cord injuries into 5 ca...
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Atzei classification of peripheral TFCC tears

The Atzei classification of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears offers a more differentiated approach on a spectrum of peripherally located triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears, which are classically summarized as “Palmer 1b” lesions 1-3. Usage Peripheral lesion...
Article

Bado classification of Monteggia fracture-dislocations

The Bado classification is one of the more widely used classifications for Monteggia fracture-dislocations and mainly focuses on the radial component. Four types are recognized and are generally based on the principle that the direction in which the apex of the ulnar fracture points is the same ...
Article

Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
Article

Berndt and Harty classification

Berndt and Harty classification is used for osteochondral lesions of the talus. Classification stage I: subchondral bone compression (marrow edema) stage II stage IIa: subchondral cyst stage IIb: incomplete separation of fragment stage III: complete separation but no displacement stage IV...
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Bone lymphoma

Lymphoma of the bone may represent lymphoma that has originated within that bone itself i.e. primary, or metastasized there from another organ/tissue, i.e. secondary. Secondary forms of bone lymphoma are much more common than the primary bone form. primary osseous lymphoma secondary osseous ly...
Article

Bone tumors

There are a bewildering number of bone tumors with a wide variety of radiological appearances: bone-forming tumors osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma osteoma osteosarcoma cartilage-forming tumors enchondroma enchondromatosis-Ollier disease Maffucci syndrome osteochondroma: hereditary multi...
Article

Brachydactyly type A1 (Farabee type)

Brachydactyly type A1, also known as  Farabee type brachydactyly, is a subtype of brachydactyly.   Clinical presentation The anomaly is characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of middle phalanges of the second to fifth digits in hands and feet and proximal phalanges of the thumbs and great toes...
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Brachydactyly type A2 (Mohr-Wriedt type)

Brachydactyly type A2 or Mohr-Wriedt type is characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the second middle phalanx of the index finger, second toe and sometimes little finger. There is radial deviation of the index finger and tibial deviation of the second toe. Pathology Type A2 brachydactyly can b...
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Brachydactyly type A3

Brachydactyly type A3 is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanx of the little finger with radial deviation of distal phalanx. Slanting of the distal articular surface of the middle phalanx leads to radial deflection of the distal phalanx. However, it is not always associated with clin...
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Brachydactyly type A4 (Temtamy type)

Brachydactyly type A4 or Temtamy type is characterized by brachymesophalangy (absent or hypoplastic middle phalanx) of the second and fifth fingers. Other less common features include club foot, clinodactyly, ulnar deviation of the second finger. Pathology Like other brachydactyly, type A4 is ...
Article

Brachydactyly type A5

Brachydactyly type A5 is characterized by absence of the middle phalanges and nail dysplasia with duplicated terminal phalanx of the thumb with resultant bifid thumb. Inheritance is suggested as autosomal dominant.  
Article

British Athletics muscle injury classification

The British Athletics muscle injury classification (BAMIC/BAC) is a five-point MRI-based system that is based on extent and site. It has been primarily based on hamstring injuries but is used in other muscle injuries. The classification system has been shown to have moderate inter- and intra-rat...
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Capsulolabral insertion classification

Capsulolabral insertion classification reflects the variation in the relationship between the glenoid labrum and the anterior shoulder joint capsule. Classification type 1: capsule inserts into the labrum proper type 2: capsule inserts into the base of the labrum, or within 1 cm of the base ...
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Castellvi classification of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV): type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse process (at least 19 mm) Ia: unilateral Ib: bilateral type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarization/sacralization; en...
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Catterall classification of Perthes disease

The Catterall classification of Perthes disease is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head: stage I bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head changes are visible best in frog l...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative disease can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
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Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
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Classification of gamekeeper thumb

This classification of gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb) was proposed by Hintermann et al. 1 in 1993 and is based on whether a fracture is present and whether the injury is stable: type I fracture present, which is non-displaced and stable in flexion typically treated with a sp...
Article

Classification of proximal focal femoral deficiency

Classification of proximal femoral deficiency (PFFD) can be complicated and numerous such classifications have been proposed. For a discussion of the condition refer to the article proximal focal femoral deficiency. One of the simplest and most widely used is that proposed by Aitken 1 which is ...
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Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
Article

Closed reduction-internal fixation

Closed reduction-internal fixation, often abbreviated to CRIF, refers to the orthopedic operative management of a fracture (or fracture-dislocation complex) where closed reduction is performed (manipulation) and internal fixation is applied, usually in the form of K-wires to stabilize the fractu...
Article

Cooke and Newman classification

The Cooke and Newman classification of periprosthetic hip fractures is a modification of the Bethea classification proposed several years earlier. type I explosion type fracture, comminuted around the stem of the implant the prosthesis is always loose and the fracture is inherently unstable ...
Article

Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion or shearing off by the...
Article

Coughlin classification

The Coughlin classification is the most widely used to type bunionettes. It relies on simple angle measurements on weight-bearing foot radiographs taken in the dorsoplantar projection 1,2. In 2013 DiDomenico et al added type IV 2. Classification type I: enlarged lateral surface of the head of ...
Article

Dameron-Lawrence-Botte classification of proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

The Dameron-Lawrence-Botte classification, or Lawrence-Botte classification, is a commonly used nomenclature for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures, which are categorized into one of three anatomic zones of involvement: zone 1: ​tuberosity (styloid process) avulsion fracture involving proxima...
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de Carvalho index (knee)

The de Carvalho index is used to measure patellar height and identify patella alta. Similar to the Caton-Deschamps index, it relies upon the length of the patellar articular surface and its distance from the tibia, reducing erroneous measurements in those with long patella bodies, as measured in...
Article

Degloving injury

Degloving injuries can refer to a number of conditions: degloving soft tissue injury Morel-Lavallée lesion (closed degloving soft tissue injury) intramuscular degloving injury degloving bowel injury
Article

Delbet classification

The Delbet classification helps predict the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head in neck of femur fractures, as well as determine operative vs non-operative management.  Classification type I: trans-epiphyseal separation fracture through proximal femoral physis, and represents Salte...
Article

Deltoid ligament injury

Deltoid ligament injuries involve the deltoid ligament that forms the medial part of the ankle joint. Pathology Mechanism of injury It occurs due to eversion and/or pronation injury, or can be associated with lateral ankle fractures. The deltoid ligament is usually avulsed from its tibial at...
Article

Depositional arthropathy

Depositional arthropathy refers to a group of joint disorders caused by the depositional of substances within and/or around joints. Diseases include: crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) gout ​​hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD) haemop...
Article

Distal fibula fracture (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Distal fibula fractures are the most common type at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury. Epidemiology Ankle ...
Article

Eaton classification of volar plate avulsion injury

The Eaton classification was proposed by Eaton and Malerich in 1980, and presently (time of writing, August 2016) along with Keifhaber-Stern classification, is the most widely accepted classification of volar plate avulsion injuries 1.  Knowledge of the orthopedic Eaton classification is practi...
Article

Elbow injection (disambiguation)

Elbow injection usually refers to an elbow joint injection, but especially to patients, it can be a term used referring to other procedures which include: common extensor origin microtenotomy common flexor origin microtenotomy distal biceps tendon sheath injection elbow joint injection MRI ...
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Elbow instability

Elbow instability refers to an excessive, usually painful, mobility in the elbow joint, most of the time as a result of a prior traumatic event or overuse and maybe also seen in patients with connective tissue disease 1,2. Classification Elbow instability can be classified in respect of timing...
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Ficat and Arlet classification of avascular necrosis of femoral head

The Ficat and Arlet classification uses a combination of plain radiographs, MRI, and clinical features to stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Classification stage 0 plain radiograph: normal MRI: normal clinical symptoms: nil stage I plain radiograph: normal or minor osteopenia ...
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Ficat classification of osteonecrosis

The Ficat classification of osteonecrosis is based on radiographic findings. In 1985 Dr Ficat published a modified version of his initial classification in 1980: Stage 0 preclinical and preradiographic diagnosis is suspected in one hip when the other has a definite disease - this is the stage...
Article

Foot injection (disambiguation)

Foot injection is a non-specific term, often used by patients, in reference to tarsal or metatarsal joint injections, and to other injections which include:​ calcaneocuboid joint injection metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) injection naviculocuneiform joint injection plantar fascia microtenoto...
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Fractures of the extremities (general rules and nomenclature)

General rules and nomenclature of fractures should be understood by, and familiar to, anyone involved in the interpretation or management of fractures of the extremities. This article covers basic nomenclature of fractures.  Classification systems Before the most appropriate treatment for a fr...
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Frykman classification of distal radial fractures

The Frykman classification of distal radial fractures is based on the AP appearance and encompasses the eponymous entities of Colles fracture, Smith fracture, Barton fracture, chauffeur fracture. It assesses the pattern of fractures, involvement of the radioulnar joint and presence of a distal u...
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Garden classification of hip fractures

The Garden classification of subcapital femoral neck fractures is the most widely used. It is simple and predicts the development of AVN 1,2. Garden described particular femoral neck and acetabular trabeculae patterns which can assist in recognizing differences within this classification system ...
Article

Gartland classification of supracondylar humeral fractures

The Gartland classification of supracondylar fractures of the humerus is based on the degree and direction of displacement, and the presence of intact cortex. It applies to extension supracondylar fractures rather than the rare flexion supracondylar fracture. Classification type I: undisplaced...
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Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, <25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% loss of h...
Article

Gertzbein and Robbins classification

The Gertzbein and Robbins classification assesses the position of transpedicular screws. Classification Transpedicular screw position is graded from A to E based on the extent by which the screw breaches the cortex of the pedicle 1-3: A: fully intrapedicular position without breach of the ped...
Article

Gilula three carpal arcs

Gilula three carpal arcs refer to the carpal alignment described on posteroanterior or anteroposterior wrist radiographs and are used to assess normal alignment of the carpus: first arc: is a smooth curve outlining the proximal convexities of the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum second arc: tra...
Article

Goutallier classification of rotator cuff muscle fatty degeneration

The Goutallier classification is a classification system used to quantify the amount of fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles, particularly in the context of rotator cuff tendon tears. Although originally described in shoulder CT 1, it is applicable and now most commonly used in MR. It ...
Article

Grading of brachial plexus injuries

According to CT myelography, brachial plexus injuries can be classified into six types 1: N type: normal root sleeve and nerve roots A1 type: slightly deformed root sleeves and nerve roots as compared to unaffected site A2 type: obliteration of the tip of root sleeves and deformed thickened n...
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Graf method for ultrasound classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

The Graf method for ultrasound classification system for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants, combines both alpha and beta angles. There are a number of additional subdivisions, which are often not used clinically.  As a general rule, the alpha angle determines the type and in s...
Article

Gustilo Anderson classification

The Gustilo Anderson classification, also known as the Gustilo classification, is the most widely accepted classification system of open (or compound) fractures. The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher risk of compl...
Article

Hamate fracture (classification)

Hamate fractures are an uncommon form of carpal bone fractures and only account for 1-2% of such fractures. Classification Hamate fractures usually get subdivided into two broad groups: hook fractures and body fractures. Classification of hamate fractures: type 1: hook of hamate fracture ty...
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Harris classification of acetabular fractures

The Harris classification of acetabular fractures is based on definitions of acetabular walls and columns that differ from the Judet and Letournel classification 1. Usage The Judet and Letournel classification is more widely used and is applicable to both CT and plain radiographs, whereas, the...
Article

Hereditary connective tissue disease

Hereditary connective tissue diseases are an enlarging group of connective tissue diseases that have a degree of inheritance risk. They include:  Marfan syndrome: genetic disease causing abnormal fibrillin Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: progressive deterioration of collagen and affects joints, heart ...
Article

Herring (Lateral Pillar) classification of Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease

Classification of Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease based on the height of the lateral pillar: Group A : No involvement of the lateral pillar with no density changes identified. Group B : at least 50% of the lateral pillar height maintained Group C: less than 50% of the lateral pillar maintained Th...
Article

Hip injection (disambiguation)

Hip injection can refer to an intra-articular injection, but especially to patients, it can be a term used referring to other procedures around the hip which include: common hamstrings origin microtenotomy gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage greater trochanteric bursa injec...
Article

Ideberg classification of glenoid fossa fractures

The Ideberg classification system is the most common system used to describe glenoid fossa and rim fractures 1. Glenoid fractures are uncommon fractures of the shoulder but are important to recognize as they are often associated with concomitant injuries to chest, head, brachial plexus and humer...
Article

International Myeloma Working Group response criteria

The International Myeloma Working Group response criteria are consensus definitions used to assess response to treatment of multiple myeloma. With the latest version published in 2016, the criteria have been widely adopted for classifying responses in clinical trials and in routine practice 1. I...
Article

Johansson classification

The Johansson classification of periprosthetic hip fractures was the first classification system proposed and is the simplest. It is based on the level of the fracture in relation to the prosthesis. type I: fracture proximal to the tip of the prosthesis with the stem still in contact with the m...
Article

Judet and Letournel classification for acetabular fractures

The Judet and Letournel classification is the most widely used classification system for acetabular fractures. It classifies acetabular fractures into ten major fracture patterns, which consist of five simple patterns and five complex patterns 1,2. Classification The morphology of fracture pa...
Article

Keifhaber-Stern classification of volar plate avulsion injuries of hand

The Keifhaber-Stern classification was proposed originally by Hastings and later modified by Keifhaber and Stern in 1998. This classification, along with the Eaton classification, is the most widely accepted classification at the time of writing (August 2016) for the management of volar plate av...
Article

Kellgren and Lawrence system for classification of osteoarthritis

The Kellgren and Lawrence system is a common method of classifying the severity of osteoarthritis (OA) using five grades.  The original paper 1 graded OA at the following sites and projections: hands: posteroanterior cervical spine: lateral lumbar spine (facet joints only): lateral hips: an...
Article

Knee injection (disambiguation)

Knee injection is a general term and can be made in reference, especially by patients, to multiple procedures which include: common peroneal (fibular) nerve injection knee joint injection MRI arthrogram CT arthrogram anesthetic arthrogram patella tendon microtenotomy proximal tibiofibular...
Article

Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear

The Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear was proposed in 1990 4 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing achilles tendon rupture.  Classification Achilles tendon tears may be grouped (according to severity of the tear and degree of retr...
Article

Langenskiold classification of Blount disease

The Langenskiold Classification of Blount disease uses age and severity of deformity as grading parameters. Classification Six stage radiographic classification of infantile tibia vara, which is based on changes observed as the child matured: stage I: 2-3 years irregularity of metaphyseal os...
Article

Langer Saldino syndrome

The Langer Saldino syndrome or achondrogenesis type II is a subtype of achondrogenesis. It is an extremely rare fatal skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Genetics Majority of cases are sporadic. Autosomal dominant inheritance is also another mode. There is mutation in the collagen type II gene (COL...
Article

LaPrade classification system of meniscal root tears

The LaPrade classification system of meniscal root tears characterizes meniscal root tears based on morphology. The system was originally conceived based on arthroscopy 1,2.  Usage It has to be emphasized that this is a primarily arthroscopic classification system, however, the same morphologi...
Article

Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
Article

Lateral humeral line

The lateral humeral line is used to confirm the alignment of the pediatric radiocapitellar joint in the coronal plane 1. This is particularly important in injuries such as a Monteggia fracture-dislocation or in a radial neck fracture. Measurement The lateral humeral line is drawn on a pediatri...
Article

Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle injury

The Lauge-Hansen classification system is used for the classification of ankle injuries based on injury mechanisms that have predictable patterns and imaging findings. Along with the Weber classification, these systems are useful tools for describing and classifying ankle injuries. Classificati...
Article

Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is the most widely used classification system of hangman fractures of the C2 3. The injury, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis and the amount and direction of displacement determines stability and guides treatment. The classification system is...
Article

Lodwick classification of lytic bone lesions

The Lodwick classification is a system for describing the margins of a lytic bone lesion (or lucent bone lesion). The terms used in the description suggest the level of concern for an aggressive, and possibly malignant, process. Classification type 1: geographic 1A: thin, sclerotic margin 1B...
Article

Lumbar foraminal stenosis

Lumbar foraminal stenosis or lumbar neuroforaminal stenosis is described as narrowing of the neural exit foramina. It is a common cause of backache and/or radiculopathy, and is assessed as part of the routine evaluation of lumbar MRI studies to determine what impact, if any, the surrounding stru...

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