The 2014 WHO classification is one of the classification systems for endometrial stromal tumors (EST).
Endometrial stromal tumors constitute <2% of all uterine tumors and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms 1.
Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modificat...
There are many classification systems for congenital utero-vaginal anomalies. These include:
Buttram and Gibbons classification 2
American Fertility Society (AFS) classification
Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification
Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification
This classification divid...
The Gynecologic Imaging-Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) is a reporting system that was created for reporting the findings in adnexal masses based on transvaginal ultrasonography.
Findings are classified into five categories 1:
normal ovaries identified and no adn...
Hydrometra is a descriptive term that refers to a distended uterus filled with clear, non-infected fluid.
The International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, end...
The modified Golan classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, employing clinical findings and imaging appearances, is used to categorize ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) into the following three categories of severity with five grades 1,2:
mild OHSS: characterized by bilateral...
The Müllerian duct anomaly classification is a seven-class system that can be used to describe a number of embryonic Müllerian duct anomalies:
class I: uterine agenesis/uterine hypoplasia
a: vaginal (uterus: normal/variety of abnormal forms)
The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) forms the MRI component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there is a uniform, unambiguous MRI evaluation of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately ...
The Ovarian-Adnexal Imaging Reporting and Data System, (O-RADS), aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately assigning each lesion to a risk category of malignancy being present, and which informs the appropria...
The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Ultrasound (O-RADS US) forms the ultrasound component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately ass...
Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynecological imaging and vary widely in etiology from physiological to complex benign to neoplastic.
Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant,...
There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include:
female genitourinary tract:
Gartner duct cyst
epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina
Skene duct cyst
Bartholin gland cyst
endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region
male genitourinary trac...
Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to an ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries, the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with advers...
The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in ovarian tumors is a validated clinical tool used for risk stratification of ovarian lesions, to guide further management 1-3.
The score incorporates the patient's menopausal status (M), ultrasound features of the lesion (U), and the serum CA...
Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumors are a subtype of ovarian tumors and account for 8-10% of all ovarian tumors. They arise from two groups of cells in the ovary:
primitive sex cords: celomic epithelium
The group of tumors includes
ovarian fibroma-thecoma spectrum
True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.
Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues.
There are three forms of true hermaphroditism:
unilateral true hermaphroditism
Uterine biophysical profile is a sonographic examination of the uterus that assess seven sonographic characteristics used to predict successful conception.
Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS)
The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mi...
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumors and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 8051/3...