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3D printing process (creative commons)

Case contributed by Dr Candace Makeda Moore


Known liver tumor pending surgical operation.


CT: example of slice with segmented view

Example of one axial CT slice of a abdomen including liver with heterogeneous hypodense area of tumor to be resected. Colored areas superimposed onto axial CT slices, including the one shown, represent segmented parts for making a mesh file (a specific type of surface rendering) for 3D visualization and printing.


Mesh file and photograph of 3D print

 Surface rendered polygonal mesh based on segmented CT showing tumor and vasculature and final 3D printed model of liver. The print is made of polylactic acid filaments.

Case Discussion

These images shows one of the most typical 3D printing workflows for surgical planning in which a 3D modality i.e. CT or MRI is segmented semi-automatically via computer algorithms into relevant organs to prepare a mesh file, then printed by fused deposition modeling.

Authors: Witowski et al.

Originally published in European Radiology : https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06511-2

Modifications: Cropped and adjusted into two pages.

License: This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution--Non-Commercial 4.0 International license. (CC BY NC 4.0)

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Case information

rID: 73545
Published: 14th Jan 2020
Last edited: 7th Oct 2020
Inclusion in quiz mode: Included

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