Trigeminal nerve stimulators are devices intended for the treatment of trigeminal neuropathic pain (e.g. trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic, post-surgical, multiple sclerosis-associated trigeminal neuropathies), although evidence is lacking and implantation of devices, for this reason, is considered "off label" in some countries.
Leads are implanted into the involved ophthalmic, maxillary or mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve. Initially, the pulse generator is external, if the patient reports a significant improvement in symptoms the external generator is replaced with an internal generator, which is usually placed below the clavicle.
Complications include infection, electrode migration and lead fracture.