Origin and course
The splenic artery is one of the terminal branches of the celiac trunk, passing from the celiac axis toward the splenic hilum, traveling superiorly to the pancreas with the splenic vein inferoposteriorly before entering the splenorenal ligament.
Near the splenic hilum the splenic artery divides into superior and inferior terminal branches, with each terminal branch further dividing into four-to-six intrasplenic segmental branches.
Branches and supply
- pancreatic branches including the dorsal pancreatic artery and greater pancreatic artery (arteria pancreatica magna)
- supply neck, body and tail of the pancreas
- short gastric arteries
- arising before the splenic artery enters the splenic hilum
- run in the gastrosplenic ligament to supply the fundus and upper part of greater curvature of the stomach, and anastomose with the left gastric artery over the fundus
- supplies cardia and fundal regions of the stomach
- left gastroepiploic artery
- runs in the greater omentum along the greater curvature of the stomach to anastomose with the right gastroepiploic artery
- separate origin from the abdominal aorta rather than the coelic trunk (~8%)