References

Last revised by Dr Daniel J Bell on 04 Oct 2021

References are essential to the pursuit of the high academic standards we are aiming for at Radiopaedia.org. 

  • each article should have at least 3-4 references
    • cases may also often have references, and when used the style should follow as for articles, including assigning ascending numbers to each additional reference (1.,2., etc.)
  • all references should be cited in the reference section
  • each reference should be assigned to its own reference box
  • references should be sought in the following descending order of preference:
    1. online journals with complete text available without subscription (e.g. AJR and RadioGraphics)
    2. online journals with complete text available but requiring subscription (e.g. Radiology, British Journal of Radiology)
    3. textbooks
      • if textbooks are to be used, it is better to use those that have in-text references
  • referencing websites is generally discouraged except under certain specific instances, and only after discussion with a member of the editorial board: content may not have been peer-reviewed, may change dynamically, hyperlinks may become stale and a user login may be required to view content
    • in particular, we ask that whonamedit.com and wikipedia.org are not used as often articles on those sites are poorly referenced 
  • please try to avoid using two-tiered references e.g. directly citing a reference X obtained from Y's article, when you have only read the article by Y, and never actually reviewed reference X yourself - there is a risk because 'Y' may have incorrectly cited or misunderstood the article by 'X'

When citing the reference from the text:

  • use a superscript reference 1
  • add a space between the text and the reference 
  • if it is at the end of a sentence, it should be before the full-stop (period), which itself should not be superscripted 1.
  • if it precedes a list, it should be before the colon 1:
  • if there are multiple references, they should be separated by a comma, but without a space 1,2
  • if there are more than two consecutive reference numbers use the first and last numbers connected by a dash 1-3
    • note that if only two consecutive numbers then only separate by a comma 1,2
  • if a combination of multiple references with some, but not all, numbers consecutive 1,2,4-6
  • superscripts must never be placed after section headings
  • each new citation added to the reference section should be preceded by a number followed by a full stop/period, starting from '1.', even if there is only one citation
    • each additional citation is assigned a number one higher than the highest pre-existing citation

Citations are formatted for Radiopaedia.org, but draw heavily on the National Library of Medicine (used in Pubmed) and use the ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2005 (R2010) Bibliographic References standard. Read more.

  • authors (Surname Initials) separated by commas
  • if 6 or fewer all are listed
  • if 7 or more, 3 et al are listed
  • abbreviated Journal Title

1. Ferguson E, Krishnamurthy R, Oldham S. Classic Imaging Signs of Congenital Cardiovascular Abnormalities. Radiographics. 2007;27(5):1323-34. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.275065148">doi:10.1148/rg.275065148</a>

The best way to simply do this is by using www.citeitright.co.uk

Simply plug in the URL of the article or PDF, the pubmed ID (PMID) or ISBN into the reference box and click "search". 

It will work in the vast majority of cases and we are constantly working to make the system better, so as we find references that fail, we try to fix them.

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