Pediatric forearm (AP view)
Citation, DOI and article data
The anteroposterior forearm view for pediatrics is one of two standard projections in the forearm series to assess the radius and ulna.
This view demonstrates the elbow joint in its natural anatomical position allowing for assessment of suspected dislocations or fractures and localizing foreign bodies within the forearm.
However, this view should not be considered when evaluating occult wrist or elbow injuries due to beam divergence. Beam divergence (Figure 1) at the edges of the image should be acknowledged when assessing anatomy 1.
- patient is seated alongside the table
- the fully extended forearm is supinated and kept in contact with the image receptor
- ensure all dorsal aspects of the forearm from wrist to elbow are kept in contact with the receptor
- anteroposterior projection
- mid forearm region
- distal to the wrist joint
- proximal to elbow joint
- 24 cm x 30 cm
- 50-55 kVp
- 2-4 mAs
- 110 cm
Image technical evaluation
- the trochlea and capitellum can be seen in profile.
- the wrist is in AP position, with minimal superimposition of the distal radius and ulna.
- the arm should be extended appropriately, evidenced by the radial head being seen in profile.
Contact lead shielding is no longer recommended for any pediatric examination. Statements have been released by several radiological societies supporting an end to this practice 3-6, with the most comprehensive guidance statement on this matter being in an 86-page joint report 7.
Please see your local department protocols for further clarification as they may differ from these recommendations.
Preparing the room beforehand (setting up the detector, exposure and preparing lead gowns) is extremely beneficial for forearm imaging as young children may begin to cry the moment their affected arm is brought away from their body.
To prevent malrotation/motion artifact in the radiograph, parental holding at the proximal half of the child’s arm and distal part of the hand may be required. Other alternative methods such as distraction techniques may be ideal to avoid scattered radiation to parents and staff 8.
- 1. Martensen KM. Radiographic Image Analysis. Saunders. ISBN:B00EDQ25XC. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. A paediatric X‐ray exposure chart. (2014) Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences. 61 (3): 191. doi:10.1002/jmrs.56 - Pubmed
- 3. Statement No. 13 – NCRP Recommendations For Ending Routine Gonadal Shielding During Abdominal And Pelvic Radiography (2021)". Ncrponline.org, 2021. [Link].
- 4. ASMIRT Position Statement Gonad Shielding". Asmirt.org, 2021. [Link].
- 5. ASRT Statement on Fetal and Gonadal Shielding. Asrt.org, 2021. [Link].
- 6. Yogesh Thakur, Stephanie C. Schofield, Thorarin A. Bjarnason, Michael N. Patlas. Discontinuing Gonadal and Fetal Shielding in X-Ray:. (2021) Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. doi:10.1177/0846537121993092 doi:10.1177/0846537121993092.
- 7. Guidance on using shielding on patients for diagnostic radiology applications Joint report. Bir.org.uk, 2021. [Link].
- 8. Ng JHS, Doyle E. Keeping Children Still in Medical Imaging Examinations- Immobilisation or Restraint: A Literature Review. (2019) Journal of medical imaging and radiation sciences. 50 (1): 179-187. doi:10.1016/j.jmir.2018.09.008 - Pubmed