Norwood procedure

Last revised by Dr Henry Knipe on 02 Aug 2021

The Norwood procedure is a palliative procedure that is the first of three stages in the surgical treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.


The procedure consists of three components:

  • constructing a neo-aorta by side-to-side anastomosis of the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, such that the right ventricle supplies the systemic circulation
  • creating a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt to provide some pulmonary blood flow
    • in the classic Norwood procedure, a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt is placed
    • in the Sano modification, a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit (Sano shunt) is used instead
  • atrial septal resection

History and etymology

William Norwood and associates described the technique in 1980s 2,4.

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Cases and figures

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