Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma are uncommon benign hepatic lesions which are mostly seen in children under the age of 2. Some authors consider them to be developmental anomalies rather than cystic neoplasia 9,12.
- typically occurs in children and neonates 3
- most cases presenting within the first two years of life 3
- can very rarely present in adults 10
- reported male predominance (2:1) 13
Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma can be rather large on presentation, and so abdominal enlargement and respiratory distress are thought to be the most common presenting features in children.
Classically presents with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, although unusual cases presenting with elevated AFP have been reported 2.
The lesions are characterized by an admixture of ductal structures (blood vessels, small groups of hepatocytes, and bile ducts) within a copious loose/edematous connective tissue stroma 7-8. They rarely calcify 15.
On a cut surface, there are typically multiple cysts in an edematous stroma; the cysts can vary in size ranging from a few millimeters to 16 cm, and in number and distribution, being discrete or connected 13.
Mesenchymal hamartomas in adults may show a series of histologic modifications: progressive loss of hepatocytes, degeneration of bile duct epithelium, and cystic changes of the mesenchymal component 12-13.
Mesenchymal hamartomas of the liver are attributed to abnormal expression of the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster, such as due to chromosome rearrangement, or DICER1 gene mutation, which in turn causes microRNA dysregulation 14.
As with other hamartomas, hepatic mesenchymal hamartomas disorganized lesions which are usually cystic with a variable amount of associated soft tissue. A wide spectrum of imaging features has been described, from cystic and often multiseptated, to mixed solid/cystic, to even completely solid 1.
The dominant radiographic pattern, however, is a large (often around 12-15 cm 8), predominantly cystic mass with internal septations 3. There can be considerable variation in the size of septae and cystic spaces 9.
Although nonspecific, radiographs may show a large, non-calcified mass in the right upper quadrant 9.
It usually appears as a multiseptated cystic lesion interspersed with solid components. Detection is difficult for pedunculated lesions. In some lesions may be the predominance of solid structures 13.
On unenhanced CT, it usually has a heterogeneous appearance. The stromal elements often appear hypoattenuating, whereas the cystic components have water attenuation 8-9. The appearance of cystic and solid portions has been likened to Swiss cheese.
On a postcontrast CT scan, solid portions or thick septa of the tumors can show heterogeneous enhancement 1-8,13.
- prominent cystic components
- multifocality is uncommon
MR imaging appearance of mesenchymal hamartoma can also vary dependent on the presence of stromal elements as well as protein content of the fluid 8.
While not being a standard diagnostic imaging modality of choice, angiography may show peripheral hypervascularity to the lesion with a septated avascular center 3-9.
Treatment and prognosis
Mesenchymal hamartomas are benign lesions and are best treated by surgical resection, which usually results in cure 2. There are occasional reports of ultrasound-guided intraoperative aspiration of fluid from the cystic components of the tumor to reduce its volume, facilitating surgical resection 5.
There are fatal complications associated with hepatic mesenchymal hamartomas (particularly in the prenatal group) that generally result from the size of lesion 2:
- fetal hydrops
- respiratory distress: neonatal respiratory distress
- circulatory complications/compromise owing to a large space-occupying abdominal lesion
On imaging consider
- hepatic abscess
- hepatoblastoma - especially when there is a predominance of the solid component and persistent elevated or rising AFP
- hepatic embryonal sarcoma
- infantile hemangioendothelioma of liver
- simple hepatic cyst (or cluster): no solid component
- 1. Kim SH, Kim WS, Cheon JE et-al. Radiological spectrum of hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma in children. Korean J Radiol. 8 (6): 498-505. Korean J Radiol (link) - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Isaacs H. Fetal and neonatal hepatic tumors. J. Pediatr. Surg. 2007;42 (11): 1797-803. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2007.07.047 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Stanley P, Hall TR, Woolley MM et-al. Mesenchymal hamartomas of the liver in childhood: sonographic and CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147 (5): 1035-9. AJR Am J Roentgenol (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Roberts EA, Liu P, Stringer D et-al. Mesenchymal hamartoma in a 10-month-old infant: appearance by magnetic resonance imaging. Can Assoc Radiol J. 1989;40 (4): 219-21. - Pubmed citation
- 5. Anil G, Fortier M, Low Y. Cystic hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma: the role of radiology in diagnosis and perioperative management. Br J Radiol. 2011;84 (1001): e91-4. doi:10.1259/bjr/41579091 - Pubmed citation
- 6. Cornette J, Festen S, Van den hoonaard TL et-al. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver: a benign tumor with deceptive prognosis in the perinatal period. Case report and review of the literature. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. 2009;25 (2): 196-202. doi:10.1159/000212057 - Pubmed citation
- 7. Lai FM, Jayakumar CR, Saw L et-al. Hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma: a case report and radiological findings. Singapore Med J. 1996;37 (2): 226-8. - Pubmed citation
- 8. Horton KM, Bluemke DA, Hruban RH et-al. CT and MR imaging of benign hepatic and biliary tumors. Radiographics. 19 (2): 431-51. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 9. Ros PR, Goodman ZD, Ishak KG et-al. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiology. 1986;158 (3): 619-24. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 10. Giyanani VL, Meyers PC, Wolfson JJ. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver: computed tomography and ultrasonography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 10 (1): 51-4. - Pubmed citation
- 11. Ye BB, Hu B, Wang LJ et-al. Mesenchymal hamartoma of liver: magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic correlation. World J. Gastroenterol. 2005;11 (37): 5807-10. World J. Gastroenterol. (link) - Pubmed citation
- 12. Kim KA, Kim KW, Park SH et-al. Unusual mesenchymal liver tumors in adults: radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187 (5): W481-9. doi:10.2214/AJR.05.0659 - Pubmed citation
- 13. Gastrointestinal. ISBN:8535231439. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 14. Apellaniz-Ruiz M, Segni M, Kettwig M, Glüer S, Pelletier D, Nguyen VH, Wagener R, López C, Muchantef K, Bouron-Dal Soglio D, Sabbaghian N, Wu MK, Zannella S, Fabian MR, Siebert R, Menke J, Priest JR, Foulkes WD. Mesenchymal Hamartoma of the Liver and DICER1 Syndrome. (2019) The New England journal of medicine. 380 (19): 1834-1842. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1812169 - Pubmed
- 15. O'Hara SM. Chapter 51 - The Pediatric Liver and Spleen. In: Carol M. Rumack, Deborah Levine. Diagnostic Ultrasound. (2017). 1730-1774 ISBN: 9780323401715
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